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The Milky Way Model establishes a new look at the creation of our universe and the continued creation of connecting universes. There is no start and no end. This defines eternity.
God's Science: A New Look at the Bible, Stars and Universes establishes a new model. (This model has already been improved upon since I wrote and printed the first edition, i.e. I've refined some of the concepts.) In establishing a new spiritually based model, I was less concerned about debunking the currently excepted big bang theory; however, pages 173-176 did highlight some outlandish ideas that the big bang accepts as facts. (Note that this is the next to last chapter in the book and that begins on page 151. Again, my point is to establish a new model.)
Figure 17.10 shows jets from three unique "Seed Universes." The dynamic structures of Seed Universes are further detailed in this chapter. Astronomers consider each of these jets as the centers of active galaxies. The Milky Way Model considers these jets as sprout like emanations from Seed Universes. M87 is put at about 50 million ly away with a jet emitted about 6000 ly from its center (Perlman 2003). PKS 1127-145 is considered about 10 billion ly away (z=1.187), which makes its full X-ray jet extended more than 1 million ly (Siemiginowska 2002). The jet of M87 extends about 25 arcseconds compared to approximately 30 arcseconds for the jet of PKS 1127-145. The Milky Way Model makes sense from this actual data, rejecting the clearly absurd theoretical distance calculations. In other words these celestial forms are similar in nature. Cen A is probably the most developed, and closest Seed Universe. It's X-ray jet extends about 3 arcminutes.
According to the Milky Way Model, all light in our universe exists within the perimeter of our Local-Group. (Remember that our Great Andromeda Galaxy establishes the edge of our Local-Group at about 2.5 million light years away.) Too much mental manipulation occurs when accepting distance measurements derived from the big bang theory. The bulk of astronomers and a believing public separate themselves from real data that has been measured with some degree of accuracy. Instead of considering distant galaxies to be similar to our Milky Way or the disk of M31 (Andromeda Galaxy), which is also similar in size, they create monstrous galaxies thousands of times larger with millions to billions of more stars—all to fit into their big bang theory.[Footnote 16]
[Footnote 16: The primary interpretation of redshifts today amounts to huge differences in the actual brightness of some distant galaxies. Figure 17.10 presented 2 active galaxies with similar X-ray jets. The jet of M87 is considered to be about 6000 light years (ly) compared to more than a million ly for the jet of PKS 1127-145. These jets can be seen as a radius that extends from the center of a galaxy. One jet is considered about 170 times longer than the other (1,000,000 ÷ 6000 = about 170). For simplicity, stars can be considered within a spherical-like space. A radius/diameter considered to be 170 times longer relates to the spherical volume containing its brightness. Differences of the brightness/volume between sources are related by the cube of the radius. With calculations based on the big bang theory, the distant galaxy would contain about 5 million more of each star (170^3 = about 5 million). A thorough study of optical luminosity (based on the big bang theory) would present galaxies that are assumed to have billions of more stars. The purpose of the Milky Way Model is to interpret the most reliable data. The real data makes sense when considering the power of God and human potential as the foundation of power/light. The examples presented mainly stem from research surrounding high energy sources and not optical luminosities. ]
Appendix Six presents some simple examples from the astrophysical data. For now, we can consider measurable gamma rays, most fully detailed from the EGRET gamma ray telescope.
Figure 16.4 presents the sky in gamma rays above 100 million electrons volts (100 MeV). The top version portrays the strength of emission spread throughout the disk of the Milky Way. The position of the solar flare on June 11, 1991 is notated. [According to the 3rd EGRET Catalog, on June 11, 1991 the Sun was the eighth brightest gamma ray source in the sky. For a comparison with other gamma ray sources, the Sun had an energy flux of about 169 photons versus: 180 from 3C 279, 196 from an unknown source, 226 from the Crab Pulsar, 259 from an Active Galaxy/Quasar, 310 from an unknown source, 353 from the Geminga Pulsar, and 834 from the Vela Pulsar. The solar flare is about 4.4 degrees away from the galactic map position of the Crab Pulsar.] The bottom image removes the diffuse gamma ray energies to show the strength of individual sources. The brightest regions are around the Vela and Gamma Cygni supernova remnants. (Figure 16.4 is from page 142 of God's Science.)
The Milky Way Model will interpret the energies from gamma ray photons to demonstrate its strength over the current godless theory. If we add up every single photon emitted from the 3rd EGRET Catalog and even overestimate the diffuse gamma ray background from the disk of the Milky Way (fig. 16.4 top), then measure all of these photons from a galaxy 10 million ly away, the gamma ray energy is far less than the weakest measurable gamma ray source. Without making up some monstrous size for distant galaxies or some other manipulation, the data seems pretty clear.
The example uses the simple inverse-square law of light and places ALL light from high energy gamma rays 25,000 ly away—about the distance to our galactic center. Even though the region around the Vela is very bright in gamma rays and only about 1000 ly away, the average will place the high energy photons at 25,000 ly away. These estimations present more than enough accuracy for anyone willing to think it through. The inverse-square law of light basically says that if the brightness of a 100 watt light bulb is moved from being one foot to 100 feet away, it will be 10,000 times dimmer. When further away, light must spread through much more space. The 100 times distance is squared (100^2 = 10,000). If we were on the planet Pluto, optical light from the Sun would be 1600 times less powerful. This relies on the distance of Pluto right now—which is about 40 times our distance from the Sun—and squares the difference (40^2 = 1600).
Data from the 3rd EGRET Catalog determines the gamma ray flux from 271 sources. Our Sun is considered a source, because it was measured by the EGRET during a single day. Other sources were computed only from certain cycles or combinations from the 165 individual viewing periods (Hartman 1999). Even when taking all gamma ray energies—as if all 271 sources emitted photons every second—and then overcompensating for diffuse high energy gamma ray photons spreading from our galactic center, the photons could not be measured in distant galaxies, i.e. even if considered to be from the closest active galaxy Cen A. [Footnote 17] As shown in this footnote, if every high energy gamma ray photon from our entire universe is placed just 400 times further from our galactic center (i.e. as if from our closest active galaxy Cen A), this source would be at least 19 times dimmer than the dimmest measurable source. This example overestimates the frequency of every EGRET gamma ray source. From stellar activities and prominent X-ray and gamma ray sources in our disk, our Milky Way is considered to be an active galaxy.
[Footnote 17: The flux of all 271 sources from the 3rd EGRET Catalog equals less than 12,000 photons x 10^-8 per square cm per second. An overestimation of the diffuse gamma rays (Pohl 2002) is 3 times this (12,000 x 3 = 36,000) for a total of about 48,000 photons. (This would mean a total of 4.8 photons per square meter per second.) Of course even doubling or tripling this amount still stresses the point that what astronomers consider as active galaxies can not exist billions of light years (ly) away, unless made inconceivably large.
According to astronomers, Cen A is considered to be the closest active galaxy to emit high energy gamma rays. (Gamma ray photons are claimed to come from the LMC, a local group dwarf galaxy about 160,000 ly away.) If Cen A was 10 million ly away, then this would mean that it is 400 times further than our galactic center at 25,000 ly away. The dimmest measurable source (3EG J1009+4855) is said to emit 5.7 photons (remember that this is .000000057 photons per square centimeter per second). With the inverse-square law of light, the 400 times difference in the distance to Cen A is squared (400^2 = 160,000) to find the difference in brightness. If all gamma rays in our universe were put from our galaxy (using the galactic center for the average) to Cen A at just 10 million ly away, the gamma rays could not even be measured (48,000 photons ÷ 160,000 = 0.3 gamma ray photons which is 19 times dimmer than the dimmest measurable source, 5.7 ÷ 0.3 = 19). The billions of light year distances to other active galaxies makes this example even clearer. Note that this example is only taking into consideration high energy gamma ray photons as measured by EGRET. These can contain a range of photon energies above 100 MeV, yet this would not be relevant when considering an estimate for all high energy gamma ray photons. ]
Another example may more clearly show how astronomers create—within their belief system—exorbitant sizes for their galaxies. This is done so that their interpretation of light sources will fit into their theory. One active galaxy (1Jy 0836+710) has a redshift (z = 2.17) that would place it more than 10 billion ly away. If the 10 billion ly distance is used, it would be 400,000 times further than our galactic center (10 billion ÷ 25,000 = 400,000). Using the above comparison with the brightness of gamma rays, an active galaxy 400,000 times further should be 160 billion times dimmer (400,000^2 = 160 billion). The supposedly distant source is said to emit 10.2 x 10^-8 photons per square centimeter per second. If moving every high energy gamma ray photon in our galaxy, local group and universe from our galactic center 25,000 ly away, to the 10 billion ly distance claimed for this source, it would be 34 million times too dim to measure. (Footnote 17 shows the mathematical reasoning: 48,000 total photons ÷ 160,000,000,000 = 0.0000003; 10.2 measured photons ÷ 0.0000003 = 34,000,000). If this is an active galaxy 10 billion ly away, compared to what we know, it would have something to the order of 34 million times more of every star form than exists in our Milky Way Galaxy. (Wow, how monstrous do these galaxies have to get in order to fit into a big bang theory?)
Luminosity is the inherent brightness/energy of a source when considering its theoretically calculated distance. Based on the big bang theory, differences in luminosities range between thousands to millions of times. Astrophysicists have agreed to accept these theoretical distance determinations that create monstrous sizes. Appendix Four shows the images (see below) of what are considered 2 active galaxies (1Jy 0836+710 and Mrk421). They have about the same amount of radio, X-ray, and gamma ray emission; however, one is claimed to be 4850 times more luminous (Mukherjee 2001). This luminosity basically assumes 4850 times more gamma ray light, even though the 2 sources emit about the same number of gamma ray photons as measured by the EGRET. Although most energies from their spectrum are about the same, a noticeable difference is measured optically. One clearly looks brighter in an optical image. Since we exist within the optical part of our light spectrum -- this is how we see and also light from our Sun that provides food -- the optical core would represent a more mature phase of a Seed Universe. Cen A circulates a major core of visible light.
Figure A4.5 compares optical, radio and X-ray light from two EGRET gamma ray sources. In the Milky Way Model, optical light can vary depending on Seed Universes in the curvature of time and space. The gamma ray photon counts are similar, along with radio and X-ray brightness; however astronomers make one galaxy monstrous compared to the other. Mkn 421 is possibly a little closer, yet astronomers put one at about 400 million compared to 11+ billion ly. (The analysis is from SkyView images with Aladin software. Figure A4.5 is from page 246 of God's Science.)
Figure 17.8 shows an example from our visibly brightest supernova remnant (SNR: Crab Nebula), galactic globular cluster (GGC: Omega Cen), and an active galaxy "Seed Universe" (Cen A).
Figure 17.8 shows three prominent examples from each Stage of the Milky Way Model's Phase II. The Crab Pulsar and its surrounding nebula is the optically brightest supernova remnant (SNR) and is still expanding (in visible light) at about 6500 ly from us. Omega Cen is the brightest globular cluster, (GGC) —3.6 magnitudes which is about the same as M31, the Great Andromeda Galaxy —and is considered about 17,000 ly from us. Cen A is considered the closest and optically brightest active galaxy at about 10 million ly from us. The Milky Way Model considers Cen A as a Seed Universe before its Fall/Expansion to God’s Extended-Universe and probably only thousands of light year from us. The diameters of each circle extend 6 arcminutes of the sky. (This is from page 169 of God's Science.)
The optical core of Seed Universes definitely varies. The optical core that is not moving away at intense speeds—meaning lines of its spectrum are not moved toward the longer wavelengths, i.e. redshifted—has circulated more of its optical light and will have an optically brighter core. ...
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