GO TO Scot Aaron's new webpage
I've explored Egypt twice and studied at two Egyptology libraries when I lived in Europe. The beliefs of ancient Egypt seem so easy to understand, yet books written each year seem to miss the point. First and foremost, no one appears to talk about a spiritual "Preexistence." This was discussed by early Christians yet subverted when Christianity became a State religion with the Emperor Constantine.
The Egyptian "Book of the Dead" is read, yet interpreters often miss the point of "divine potential." To get to some core understandings, I quote from the 1st Egyptian Pyramid text, carved on the walls of Una's pyramid some 800 years prior to the popularized "Book of the Dead."
This section comes from Addendix 1 of God's Science: A New Look at the Bible, Stars and Universes. (pp. 214-223) If you're interested, the book can be ordered from a bookstore or is available from Amazon.com.
Quotes from the Bible clearly hint at a preexistence where God creates the "Spirits" of humans. Preexistence refers to linear time before the earth is physically created in its current form. Biblical accounts in Genesis stress periods/days of the creation, after which comes the “fall” from God. The sense that humans may be “resurrected” as stars might be hidden within limited scriptural references. To support the concept of Preexistence and the potential of humans to access the power of stars, I will explore sections from the first Pyramid Text (essentially the oldest religious writings from Egypt) and briefly examine the three main "King Lists."1
[Footnote 1: I should stress the fact that writings from ancient Egypt are actual texts that are much older than the earliest known copies of the Old Testament, i.e. the Greek Septuagint from about 200 bc. The Pyramid Text of Unas and the Palermo Stone contain actual writings from about 2350 bc and 2450 bc, respectively. ]
Akhenaten (about 1352--1336 BC) had a religious reveloution in the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt.
Throughout many years of studying the ancient Egyptian religion, I clearly recognize profound truths, mixed and twisted with personal agendas from particular pharaohs and/or others, such as influential priests or scribes. The religious revolution of the New Kingdom (Akhenaten) manifests this major conflict. By studying various periods, we can notice opposing trends of worship. A pharaoh might choose to reject worshipping the supreme God and divine representatives like Osiris and his son Horus, then worship Set (Seth) who murdered Osiris. Set was considered the god of chaos and confusion. Some quotes from the Pyramid Texts will refer to this cosmic-like drama between Horus and Set. (This obviously has similarities with the Biblical drama between Lucifer/Satan and Christ.)
As with my astrophysical research, I have sought the best academic sources for ancient Egypt; however, we are not dealing with a religion that is still practiced. If this religion was active, we would probably find distinct interpretations, similar to variations within Christianity. What is Jesus, Christ, God, and our spiritual responsibilities in life all about?
Numerous pharaohs sought to trace their royal position from an ancient succession of pharaohs. As with other mythologies and various religious conceptions, the pharaohs traced their linage from God and divine sources. They understood the divine cycle of existence as eternal. Individuals (like the pharaohs) could embody divine power and rise as Osiris. Most interpretations of the New Testament establish Jesus as the one and only God. “He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. For by him all things were created: things in heaven and on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or powers or rulers or authorities; all things were created by him and for him," (1 Corinthians 1:15-16).
Egyptians throughout most of their ancient history recognized and worshiped a Supreme Being, often called Re (Ra). From Re stemmed a group of eight gods, usually represented as the "Great Ennead." (The simple definition of an ennead means a group of nine persons and things.) The cosmic-like drama starts within this Great Ennead and extends to the earth, especially for the pharaohs with their responsibilities in a theocracy. By supporting God and the divine representatives of God, the pharaoh (and others) could receive their divinity. The power of this immortality was clearly visible in the stars.
God (Re) creates a foundational father (Geb) and mother (Nut) through the medium of air (Shu) and moisture (Tefnut). The cosmic drama extends from the four siblings of Geb and Nut: Isis, Osiris, Set, and Nephthys. Set (Seth) is a Satan-like figure who murders Osiris. In order to halt Set's plans, the son of Osiris and Isis attempts to make amends. This is where Horus enters. Horus is portrayed as a falcon and represents the living pharaoh from the earliest history of Egypt. In death, the pharaoh becomes an “Osiris” and is likewise resurrected as a god.
"Shadows for Life" was taken in the Louvre Museum, Paris. Horus is the spiritual representation of divinity upon the earth.
Breasted, James Henry, Ancient Records of Egypt Volume I: The First to the Seventeenth Dynasties, University of Chicago Press: Chicago, 1906)
Faulkner, R.O., The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Clarendon Press: Oxford, 1969
Gardiner, Alan H., The Royal Canon of Turin, Griffith Institute: Oxford, 1959
Kitchen, K.A., Ramesside Inscriptions Translated and Annotated: Volume II Ramesses II, Royal Inscriptions, Blackwell: Oxford, 1996
Piankoff, Alexandre (translation), The Pyramid of Unas, Princeton University Press, 1968
Waddell, W.G., Manetho: with an Englsih Translation, Harvard University Press, 1940, 2nd printing 1956
Home == Biblical Interpretations == Milky Way Model Intro == Hindu and Buddhist Cosmology == Big Bang Flaws == Einstein and Relativity == Bibliography == Illustration Acknowledgements